Home » Muzikos mokytojų darbo su autistiškais mokiniais patirties analizė

Muzikos mokytojų darbo su autistiškais mokiniais patirties analizė

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Projektas „Naujų metodų taikymas ugdant vaikų autistų muzikinius gebėjimus“  EEE-LT08-ŠMM-01-K-02-037

Rolandas Aidukas

2016-09-30

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Esminiai žodžiai: autistiškų mokinių muzikinis ugdymas, autizmo spektro sutrikimai,  muzikos ugdymo metodai, muzikos terapija.

Tyrimo objektas – dabartinė muzikos mokytojų darbo su autistiškais mokiniais patirtis ir nūdienos mokslinių tyrimų įžvalgos.

Tyrimo problematika. Pasaulyje atliekami autistiškų mokinių muzikinio ugdymo tyrimai, darbo su tokiais mokiniais praktika atskleidė naujų metodų, žinių, kurie ne visuomet pasiekia Lietuvos mokytojus, o šie savo darbe daugiau remiasi asmenine intuicija, kolegų patarimais ir nėra susipažinę su vertinga užsienio kolegų patirtimi.  Tyrimas bandys atskleisti, kuriuos iš užsienio tyrėjų sprendinių, rastų užsienio literatūroje, galima taikyti Lietuvoje.

Tyrimo tikslas – ištirti muzikos mokytojų požiūrį į autistiškų mokinių muzikinio ugdymo patirtį ir procesą, palyginti su nūdienos užsienio mokslinių tyrimų rezultatais.

Tyrimo uždaviniai

  1. Išsiaiškinti muzikos mokytojų darbo su autistiškais mokiniais patirtį, įvertinti jų specialiojo ugdymo žinias bei poreikius.
  2. Išnagrinėti autizmo spektro sutrikimų turinčių mokinių mastą bei poreikius.
  3. Atskleisti, kokius ugdymo metodus taiko muzikos mokytojai dirbdami su autistiškais mokiniais.
  4. Atskleisti mokytojų, kitų specialistų ir tėvų bendradarbiavimo ypatumus bei galimybes.

Tyrimo metodai: anketinė apklausa, tyrimo duomenų statistinė analizė, lyginamoji analizė.

Tyrimo organizavimas ir metodika. Tyrimas atliktas taikant anketinių apklausų metodą. Siekiama ištirti mokytojų požiūrį į autistiškų mokinių muzikinio ugdymo procesą ir šių pedagogų poreikius. Sudarytos kelios anketos klausimų grupės – apie mokytoją, vaiką, ugdymo metodus ir bendradarbiavimą. 2016 m. rugpjūčio – rugsėjo mėnesiais atlikta apklausa, kurioje dalyvavo 90 mokytojų. Ši apklausa vyko per projekto „Naujų metodų taikymas ugdant vaikų autistų muzikinius gebėjimus“ mokymus „Muzikinės veiklos ypatumai ugdant autistiškus vaikus“ Vilniuje, Kaune, Šiauliuose ir Klaipėdoje. Tyrimo rezultatai išryškino projekto privalumus ir nušvietė tęstinumo būtinybę. Projekto privalumas yra tas, kad jame dalyvavo ir mokslininkai, ir mokytojai praktikai, kurių gerą savitarpio supratimą ir komunikaciją laidavo tyrėjų įtraukimas į projekto veiklą. Šios trys grandys susiliejo ir galėjo sklandžiai dirbti bei bendradarbiauti įgyvendinant jo tikslus ir uždavinius.

Tyrimas atskleidė, kad muzikos mokytojai su autizmo spektro sutrikimų turinčiais mokiniais šalies švietimo įstaigose susiduria vis dažniau ir jiems reikalinga kvalifikuota specialistų pagalba. Muzikinio ugdymo specifiką ir galimybes nemažai  tiria užsienio mokslininkai. Lietuvoje toks platesnis tyrimas, kuriame apklausiami muzikos mokytojai, dirbantys su autizmo spektro sutrikimų turinčiais mokiniais, atliekamas pirmą kartą. Itin svarbu tokius mokinius įtraukti į bendrąjį ugdymo procesą, kuriame muzika galėtų tapti vienu svarbiausių veiksnių skatinant jų ugdymąsi, integruojant juos į visuomenę ir  keičiant joje susidariusius stereotipus.

Šiam tikslui įgyvendinti buvo vykdomas projektas „Naujų metodų taikymas ugdant vaikų autistų muzikinius gebėjimus“ (Nr. EEE-LT08-ŠMM-01-K-02-037), kuris finansuojamas 2009–2014 m. Europos ekonominės erdvės finansinio mechanizmo programos LT08 „EEE stipendijų programa“ ir Lietuvos Respublikos bendrojo finansavimo lėšomis. Projektą vykdė leidykla „Šviesa“ su partneriais  – Nacionaliniu tautinių mažumų ir išeivijos švietimo, kultūros, mokymo ir informacijos centru (NTMI centras) bei Islandijoje esančia lituanistine mokykla „Trys spalvos“. Bene pirmą kartą buvo sukviesti ir savo jėgas suvienijo muzikos mokytojai, muzikos terapeutai, specialieji pedagogai, mokslininkai ir kiti asmenys, dirbantys su autizmo spektro sutrikimų turinčiais vaikais. Vykdant šį projektą organizuoti renginiai, surengti mokymai, parengtas ir išleistas gerosios praktikos vadovas „Muzikinės veiklos ypatumai ugdant autistiškus vaikus“. Tai didelė paskata ir pagalba su šiais ugdytiniais dirbantiems muzikos mokytojams.

Medžiagos apie koordinuotą įvairių sričių specialistų darbą randame užsienio mokslininkų tyrimuose, susijusiuose su autistiškų vaikų muzikiniu ugdymu.  Tyrimai parodė, kad, esant neurologinių sutrikimų, sutrinka ryšiai tarp įvairių žmogaus klausos modulio dalių ir nutrūksta natūralus garsinės (muzikinės ar kalbinės) informacijos srauto suvokimas (Fürniss 2007:35). 2015 m. Melburne (Australija) Katrina Skewes McFerran, Grace Thompson  ir Lucy Bolger atliko tyrimą „Mokinių, turinčių autizmo spektro sutrikimų, bendradarbiavimo per muziką poveikis specialiosiose mokyklos klasėse“ (McFerrana ir kt. 2016). Jį atliekant muzikos mokytojai ir specialieji pedagogai glaudžiai bendradarbiavo su ekspertais muzikos terapeutais. Tai leido pasiekti reikšmingų rezultatų, kurie atskleidė, kad muzikinė veikla yra ypač naudinga autistiškų vaikų tarpusavio ryšiams, jų emocijų raiškai, verbalinei ir neverbalinei komunikacijai. Nustatyta, kad netgi verbalinių gebėjimų stokojantys tyrimo dalyviai puikiai geba komunikuoti per muziką. Rengiant Lietuvos mokytojų apklausos anketą buvo atsižvelgiama į užsienio tyrimus ir patirtį.

Anketoje, skirtoje Lietuvos mokytojams, klausimai buvo suskirstyti į keturias grupes:

  • apie mokytoją;
  • apie vaiką;
  • apie ugdymo procesą ir metodus;
  • apie bendradarbiavimą su tėvais ir specialistais.

Iš viso anketoje buvo 25 klausimai, kai kurie iš jų dar turėjo gretutinių (konkretesnių).

Tyrime dalyvavo apie 100 mokytojų, gauta ir išanalizuota 90 anketų. Iš apklausoje dalyvavusių mokytojų 80 neturi specialaus pasirengimo dirbti su autistiškais vaikais (1 pav.).

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1 pav. Mokytojų, turinčių specialųjį pasirengimą ir šio pasirengimo neturinčių, santykis

Taigi dauguma muzikinio ugdymo procese dalyvaujančių mokytojų neturi specialaus pasirengimo dirbti su autistiškais vaikais, bet beveik visi jie lankė kursus, seminarus.

Apklaustieji mokytojai dirba bendrojo lavinimo mokyklose, lopšeliuose-darželiuose, muzikos arba meno mokyklose, specialiosiose ugdymo įstaigose (centruose). Didesnė dalis jų yra formaliojo švietimo sistemos, mažesnė – neformaliojo ugdymo, dar mažesnė – formalųjį švietimą papildančio neformaliojo ugdymo sistemos darbuotojai.

Dauguma apklaustųjų turi aukštąjį išsilavinimą, 6 – specialųjį vidurinį, 1 – nebaigtą aukštąjį (2 pav.).

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2 pav. Mokytojų išsilavinimas

Tik nedidelė respondentų dalis parašė, kokia konkrečia specialiąja muzikine literatūra naudojosi. Net 62 mokytojai nenurodė nei vieno leidinio, 8 – po vieną, 6 – po du leidinius (3 pav.).

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3 pav. Mokytojų naudojama specialioji muzikinė literatūra

Buvo paminėta metodinė priemonė „Muzikos terapijos modelio įgyvendinimas mokyklose“. Kai kurie mokytojai naudojasi internete rasta informacija ar metodiniais patarimais. Nurodoma ir kitų leidinių, pavyzdžiui, J. Tender „Jūsų vaikui diagnozuotas autizmas – ką daryti toliau?“ (Tender 2009). Vienas respondentas paminėjo išmaniąją programėlę planšetiniam kompiuteriui „Jūsų vaikui diagnozuotas autizmas“.

Labai skirtinga apklaustųjų mokytojų darbo su autistiškais mokiniais patirtis: 17 respondentų tokios patirties neturi, vienas respondentas dirbęs 25 metus, o 10 respondentų turi 10 metų darbo patirtį (4 pav.).

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4 pav. Mokytojų darbo su autistiškais vaikais patirtis (metais)

Antroji anketos klausimų grupė buvo apie vaiką. Šiuo metu 23 respondentai ugdo po vieną autistišką mokinį, o 13 respondentų – po du mokinius (5 pav.).

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5 pav. Mokytojų šiuo metu ugdomų autistiškų mokinių skaičius

Mokytojai pateikė gana daug skirtingų savo ugdytinių diagnozių. 10 respondentų nurodė diagnozę „autizmas“. Dabar vartojama sąvoka: autizmo spektro sutrikimai. Tokių sutrikimų yra keletas (6 pav.).

Vaikystės autizmas F84.0
Spektrinis autizmas F84
Netipinis /Atipiškas autizmas F84.1
Aspergerio sindromas F84.5
Nepatikslintas įvairiapusis raidos sutrikimas F84.9

6 pav. Autizmo spektro sutrikimai

Projekto „Naujų metodų taikymas ugdant vaikų autistų muzikinius gebėjimus“ partneriai iš Islandijos papasakojo apie mergaitės, kuriai diagnozuotas Viljamso (Beureno) sindromas, muzikinį ugdymą. Ši mergaitė pasižymėjo ypač jautria klausa.

Dauguma respondentų teigė, kad tėvai slepia savo vaikų diagnozes ir nenori jų pripažinti. Tik specialiosiose ugdymo įstaigose yra žinomos tikslios mokinių diagnozės. Apklausoje 12 respondentų susidūrė su vaikystės autizmu, 10 – su kompleksine negalia arba įvairiapusiu raidos sutrikimu (-ais), 5 – su spektriniu autizmu, 2 – su atipišku autizmu, 1 – su Aspergerio sindromu, 2 – su nepatikslintu įvairiapusiu raidos sutrikimu (7  pav.).

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7 pav. Mokinių diagnozės

Dauguma respondentų su autistiškais mokiniais dirba grupėse, kiek mažiau turi galimybę dirbti individualiai (8 pav.). Darbas klasėje, kurioje mokosi ir kiti mokiniai, labai apsunkina ugdymo procesą, tad dauguma respondentų, teigia, kad su autistiškais mokiniais būtina dirbti individualiai. Kitose šalyse, pvz., Islandijoje, klasėse mažiau mokinių, o jeigu tarp jų yra vienas autistiškas vaikas, jam skiriamas mokytojo padėjėjas (iš pokalbio su projekto „Naujų metodų taikymas ugdant vaikų autistų muzikinius gebėjimus“ partneriais 2016 m. rugsėjo mėnesį).

 

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8 pav. Mokytojo darbo su autistiškais mokiniais pobūdis

Lietuvoje yra susiklosčiusi nedėkinga situacija – daugeliui mokytojų vienui vieniems tenka dirbti klasėje, kurioje yra net ne vienas autistiškas mokinys, o keli. Todėl dauguma jų primygtinai teigia, kad su šiais ugdytiniais būtina dirbti individualiai arba bent jau klasės turi būti mažesnės. Dirbant su mokinių grupėmis atskirų individų elgesio problemos labai trukdo visam ugdymo procesui.

Anketoje buvo užduotas klausimas – kokia muzikinė veikla per pamokas autistiškiems mokiniams yra priimtiniausia. Tai platus klausimas –  reikėjo nurodyti ir kas tokiems mokiniams geriausiai sekasi. Iš atsakymų paaiškėjo, kad jiems priimtiniausia ir sėkmingiausia yra instrumentinio muzikavimo veikla, jai teko 49 balsai. Po jos rikiuojasi muzikos klausymas, surinkęs taipogi nemažą 43 balsų sumą, dainavimas – 18 balsų, šokis ir judesys – 10 balsų (9 pav.). Kai kurie mokiniai muzikinėje veikloje nedalyvaudavo.

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9 pav. Pamokoje vyraujanti muzikinė veikla

Viena mokytoja prisipažino, kad per muzikos pamokas taiko ir nemuzikinę veiklą. Tikėtina, kad tokių mokytojų yra ir daugiau. Iš labiausiai mokinių mėgstamų muzikos instrumentų buvo minimi mušamieji: barškučiai, būgneliai, bet naudojamų „instrumentų“ asortimentas išties labai platus: nuo kruopų maišelio iki smuiko. Kai kurie mokytojai naudoja dūdeles, sintezatorius, fortepijoną, metalofonus, tambūrinus, lazdeles, trikampius. Anketoje aprašytas efektyvus smuiko naudojimo ugdant autistišką mokinį pavyzdys Lietuvoje yra unikalus. Mokinys ne tik jautriai reaguoja į smuiko garsus, bet ir pats su malonumu groja šiuo sudėtingu muzikos instrumentu.

Don Campbell knygoje „Mocarto muzikos poveikis“, duodamas nuorodą į daktaro Tomačio tyrimus, aprašo darbo su dvylikos metų autistišku berniuku, kuris turėjo rimtų elgesio problemų, atvejį (Campbell 2005, 29-31). Vaiko negalavimo priežastis ta, kad jis psichologiškai buvo „dar negimęs“. Taikant akustinį gimimo metodą ugdytinio elgesys gerokai pasikeitė, „pagaliau vaikas gimė“ (Campbell 2005, 31). Knygoje yra išsakoma mintis, kad Mocarto muzika, ypač jo smuiko koncertų galia žmogaus kūnui daro didžiausią gydomąjį poveikį (Campbell 2005, 31). Tačiau šis teiginys, kaip ir kita mintis, kad Mocarto sonata fortepijonui daro mažesnį poveikį nei koncertai smuikui (Campbell 2005) nebuvo patvirtinti kitų mokslininkų tyrimais. Nors vienam autistiškam vaikui smuiko garsai ar Mocarto muzika gali padaryti milžinišką įspūdį, bet tai dar nereiškia, kad panašiai dirbant su kitais irgi bus toks pats efektas.

Vaikų, turinčių autizmo spektro sutrikimų, alternatyviojo muzikinio terapinio ugdymo ypatumus išsamiai aptarė Vilmantė Aleksienė ir Solveiga Zvicevičienė mokslo studijoje „Lietuvių etnochoreografija autistiškiems vaikams: ugdymo ir terapijos aspektai“. Joje  pateikiama ekspertų įvertinta, originali metodinė lietuvių etnochoreografijos programa, kuria tikslingai siekiama atskleisti ir plėtoti autistiškų vaikų komunikavimo galimybes (Aleksienė, Zvicevičienė, 2009). Ugdant tokius vaikus yra svarbios etninė kultūra ir etninė muzika.

Pastebėta, kad grojant mokiniams kyla noras judėti, šokti su kaspinais, skarelėmis, juostomis ir kitais daiktais. Sunkiausiai sekasi natų raštas, solfedžiavimas. Autistiškų vaikų ugdymui  tinkamiausia Émile Jaques Dalcroze′o (1865–1950) muzikinio ugdymo sistema, kurioje svarbi vieta tenka euritmijos metodui: visko pradžia yra ritmas. A. Vilkelienė pažymi, kad euritmija – tai harmoningas ir išraiškingas judesys (Vilkelienė, 2005). Ritmas yra organizuojanti priemonė. Ritmą turi kosmosas, visatos struktūra, žmogaus organizmo veikla (Vilkelienė, 2003). Šokis taip pat gali būti  taikomas kaip komunikacijos, kuriai ypač svarbus yra muzikos ritmas, priemonė. Tai patvirtina ir užsienio mokslininkai, kurie atliko tyrimus su autistiškais vaikais. 2015 m. Atėnuose (Graikija) vykusioje 7-ojoje pasaulinėje edukologijos mokslų konferencijoje Bilgehan Eren skaitytame pranešime sakoma,  kad muzikinė veikla – dainavimas, ritminiai žaidimai ir atliekami šokio judesiai – mažina autistiškų paauglių nerimą ir ugdo jų socialinius įgūdžius (Eren 2015).

Apklausoje dalyvavusių Lietuvos mokytojų nuomone, autistiškų mokinių muzikinį ugdymą reikėtų pradėti nuo ritminių pratimų atlikimo, grojimo be natų, muzikos klausymo. Žinoma, svarbu atsižvelgti į individualius mokinio poreikius, jo domėjimąsi vienu ar kitu muzikinės veiklos elementu. Mokytoja, dirbanti pradinėje mokykloje papasakojo, kad mokinys labai džiūgaudavo pritardamas ritminiais muzikos instrumentais, bet būta ir nesėkmės – per pertrauką mokytoja apžiūrinėjo vaikų piešinius ir pažvelgusi į berniuką klaidingai pamanė, kad jis nori parodyti savo darbą. Ir kai jo paklausė „kuris gi tavo piešinys“, vaikas susierzino ir išbėgo iš klasės. Mokinys, grodamas muzikos instrumentais, jautėsi saugus, nes ši veikla jam atrodė saugi, t. y. nukreipta į išorę. Piešinių žiūrėjimas jau galėjo būti suprastas kaip brovimasis į jo vidų, kaip pavojus jo saugumui ir dėl šios intensyvios emocijos jis jautriai sureagavo išbėgdamas iš klasės. Žinoma, šią situaciją būtų galima aiškinti ir kitaip – autistiškas vaikas sunkiai suvokia, kad kito žmogaus mintys kitokios nei jo, tad supykti jis galėjo dėl to, kad mokytoja nežino, kuris yra jo piešinys.

Projekto „Naujų metodų taikymas ugdant vaikų autistų muzikinius gebėjimus“ partneriai iš Islandijos papasakojo apie jų šalyje gyvenančią profesionalią pianistę ir kompozitorę Mamiko Dís Ragnarsdóttir, kuri turi autizmo spektro sutrikimą ir vengia bendrauti su kitais žmonėmis. Vaikystėje ji niekuo nesidomėjo, buvo abejinga ir muzikai. Tačiau išgirdusi metronomo tiksėjimą, kuris ją labai patraukė, pamažu atėjo į muzikos pasaulį.

Unikali ir profesorės Virginijos Survilaitės pedagoginė patirtis. Ji dirbo su autistišku studentu Lietuvos muzikos ir teatro akademijoje savo vadovaujamoje vargonų klasėje. 2016 m. jis baigė antrąją (magistrantūros) studijų pakopą ir gavo magistro diplomą, o dabar jau dirba vargonininku vienoje iš Lietuvos bažnyčių.

Dainavimo veiklą Lietuvos mokytojai dirbdami su autistiškais mokiniais taiko rečiau. Dauguma mano, kad mokinys, kuris neturi verbalinių gebėjimų, negali dainuoti. Nacionalinio tautinių mažumų ir išeivijos švietimo, kultūros, mokymo ir informacijos centro (NTMI centro)  bei Vilniaus Verkių mokyklos daugiafunkcio centro mokytojos ekspertės Miros Jakubovskajos ir kitų pedagogų patirtis rodo, kad dainavimas – tai universaliausias muzikavimo būdas, kuris gali būti sėkmingai taikomas autistiškų vaikų muzikiniam ugdymui. Dainavimas yra unikalus kalbos ir muzikos sintezės fenomenu. Balso galimybių naudojimas labai efektyvus ugdant autistiškus vaikus, padeda jiems  įgyti ir kalbos įgūdžių. Viena respondentė anketoje parašė: „Savo muzikos kabineto neturėjau, išmokau dirbti su balsu a cappella (be pritarimo). Tai davė gerų vokalinių rezultatų. Apie tai anksčiau negalėjau net pagalvoti (kaip galima be pianino dirbti muzikos pamokoje?)“. Anketoje aprašyta ir kita įdomi situacija: „Buvo atvejis, kai vaikutis tiesiog negalėjo būti triukšmingoje aplinkoje, todėl pirmą pamokos dalį instrumentų nenaudodavau, o tik dainuodavome a cappella ir gana tyliai, dar tikdavo gitaros garsai“. Dauguma mokytojų pastebi, kad autistiškiems mokiniams labiau patinka instrumentai, skleidžiantys švelnesnius garsus.

Apibendrindami Lietuvos mokytojų taikomas muzikinio ugdymo veiklas galime teigti, kad dauguma autistiškų mokinių neturi kalbinių gebėjimų, todėl kai kurie mokytojai dainavimo per muzikos pamokas atsisako. Tačiau autistiškų mokinių dainavimas, nors ir pasyvus, tinkamai ugdo jų verbalinius, socialinius įgūdžius.  Tai rodo ir mūsų minimas atvejis –  mokinys mokosi groti smuiku ir jam labai patinka dainavimas.

Į klausimą pagal kokias programas jie dirba, respondentai atsakė, kad ugdydami  autizmo spektro sutrikimų turinčius mokinius vadovaujasi ir bendrosiomis, ir individualizuotomis (savo pritaikytomis) programomis. Vis dėlto pirmenybė teikiama individualizuotoms (10 pav.).

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10 pav. Mokytojų naudojamų bendrųjų ir individualizuotų (pritaikytų) programų santykis

Mokytojų nuomone, ugdant autistiškus mokinius neturėtų būti daug ir įvairios mokomosios medžiagos, kad jų neblaškytų ir netrikdytų, reikėtų atrinkti tik tą, su kuria bus dirbama.

2015 m. Katrina Skewes McFerran, Grace Thompson  ir Lucy Bolger Melburne atliko tyrimą „Mokinių, turinčių autizmo spektro sutrikimų, bendradarbiavimo per muziką poveikis specialiosiose mokyklos klasėse“ (McFerrana ir kt. 2016), kuriuo buvo nustatyti muzikavimo pokyčiai: kaip pasikeitė muzikavimo ypatumai po tyrimo (žr. lentelę).

Tyrimo kategorijos Muzikavimo ypatumai: prieš tyrimą Muzikavimo ypatumai: po tyrimo
Tarpusavio sąveika Eiliškumas Sklaida (dalijimasis)
Kontrolė Labai struktūruota Spontaniška
Valdymas Mokytojas vadovauja (hierarchinis) Mokinių vadovavimas (bendradarbiavimas)
Įsitraukimas Vangus Entuziastingas
Personalo vaidmuo Mokytojo vadovavimas Vaidmenų modeliavimas
Komunikacijos strategijos Pasirinkimas Dalyvavimas
Muzikos priemonės Kompaktinių plokštelių klausymas Dainavimas ir instrumentinis muzikavimas
Papildomi ištekliai Vaizdinės užuominos ir patarimai Individuali iniciatyva ir norai
Vieta programoje Atskirta Integruota

Pasidomėjus, kaip Lietuvos mokytojai ir mokiniai ugdymo procese pasiskirsto vaidmenimis, nustatyta, kad yra būdingas mokinių dominavimas, mokytojo ir mokinio  bendradarbiavimas, vaidmenys pasiskirsto tolygiai arba keičiasi (11 pav.). Mokytojai pastebėjo, kad per pirmąsias pamokas autistiškiems mokiniams reikėtų suteikti visišką laisvę, leisti jiems pasėdėti, nieko neveikti, pabūti atskirai.

Pamokoje dominuoja Atsakymų skaičius
Mokytojas 23
Mokinys 25
Vienodai 7
Įvairiai /Keičiasi 10
Neatsakė 25

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11 pav. Mokytojo ir mokinio vaidmenų pasiskirstymas pamokoje

Atliekant minėtą Melburno tyrimą (žr. lentelę), nustatyta, kad prieš jį mokytojo vaidmuo buvo vadovaujantis (hierarchinis), o po tyrimo atsirado ir mokinių vadovavimo (bendradarbiavimas). Pažymėtina, kad atliekant tyrimą mokykloje dirbo muzikos terapeutas, kuris susitiko su darbuotojais ir jiems paaiškino tyrimo tikslą bei veiksmų schemą. Po tyrimo mokykloje pasikeitė bendravimo kultūra ir mikroklimatas, o mokytojai pageidavo, kad muzikinė veikla taptų neatskiriama kasdiene ugdymo proceso dalimi. Mokykla tapo savotišku vietos muzikos centru. Įdomus vieno tyrime dalyvavusio mokytojo pasisakymas: „Net nekalbantys mokiniai gali bendrauti per muziką. Jie nebūtinai turi dainuoti ar kalbėti, jie gali tiesiog kartoti, pavyzdžiui, vieną skiemenį. Jie negali mūsų nustebinti, bet jiems patiems tai yra didelis dalykas“. Kitas mokytojas teigė: „Tikslas yra ne CD plokštelių klausymas, o aktyvus muzikavimas“ (McFerrana ir kt. 2016). Toks muzikos poveikio suvokimas labai siejasi su teorijomis apie jos funkciją žmogaus evoliucijoje. Muzikos psichologija ir kognityvinė muzikologija tiria, kaip žmogus jos mokosi, kaip ją analizuoja ir kokį poveikį muzikos mokymasis bei muzikinė veikla turi žmogaus kognicijai (Umbrasienė, 2015, 20). XXI a. jau atliekami autizmo spektro sutrikimų turinčių vaikų ir suaugusiųjų neurologinės muzikos terapijos tyrimai.

Lietuvos mokytojai apklausoje pateikė informaciją apie autistiškų mokinių muzikiniam ugdymui taikomus metodus. 16 respondentų netinkamai apibūdino metodo sąvoką, o net 53 į šį klausimą neatsakė. Tai rodo, kad ne visi pedagogai yra metodiškai stiprūs, kad kiti negali apibūdinti savo darbe taikomų metodų. Respondentų atsakymai pasiskirstė taip (žr. lentelę).

Taikomi metodai Respondentų skaičius
Imitavimo 4
Demonstravimo 3
Operatyviniai 1
Kūrybiniai 1
Aktyvieji 1
Emocinio imitavimo 1
Žaidybiniai 8
„Veidrodinio atspindžio“ 1
Teacch 1
Muzikos terapijos 3
ABA terapijos 2
Son-Rise terapijos 1
PECS terapijos 1
Vaizdinė simbolių sistema 2
Netinkamai apibūdino 16
Neatsakė / Netaiko 53

Įdomu tai, kad Emocinio imitavimo metodo (EIM), sukurto Lolitos Navickienės, taikymo galimybės dirbant su autistiškais mokiniais anksčiau nebuvo išsamiai aprašytos. Tačiau viena mokytoja šį metodą taiko dirbdama būtent su tokiais mokiniais. Yra vienas „Veidrodinio atspindžio“ metodo (VAM) taikymo atvejis. Šis metodas detaliai aprašytas Roman Nikolskij „Realybės psichologija“. Veidrodinis atspindys – tai tiesioginis, bet labai retai sąmoningas mėgdžiojimas pozų, gestų, būdingų judesių, intonacijų, dialektinių arba žargoninių kalbos ypatumų, kurie sustiprina žmonių tarpusavio ryšį ir jų įtaką vieno kitam. Reikia pažymėti, kad nei vienas mokytojas netaikė „atbulinio dizaino metodo“ (ADM), kurį seminaruose, skirtuose Lietuvos muzikos mokytojams, yra pateikusi doc. dr. Emilija Sakadolskienė.

Mira Jakubovskaja rengdama savo ugdytinius, turinčius autizmo spektro sutrikimų bei kompleksinę negalią, sėkmingai  taiko savitus mokymo metodus.  Mokytojos parengti jaunieji dainininkai yra tarptautinių ir šalies konkursų laureatai, renginių dalyviai. Jos taikomas Imitacinis interpretacijos metodas (IIM)  ir Grojimo vaizdavimo metodas (GVM) yra sėkmingai išbandyti ir  davė puikių rezultatų. IIM grindžiamas nerašytine muzikos mokymo tradicija ir prielaida, kad kiekvienas vaikas yra muzikali asmenybė, reaguoja į muziką ir geba kurti muzikinius ryšius. Metodas orientuotas ne į rezultatą, o į patį muzikinio ugdymo procesą (Jakubovskaja 2016). Be to, M. Jakubovskaja siūlo natų mokymą pakeisti mokymo sistema „Garsas – spalva“, pagal kurią kiekvienam garsui priskiriama atitinkama spalva. Toks metodas 1995 m. atėjo iš Olandijos ir iki šiol taikomas Lietuvos specialiosios kūrybos draugijos „Guboja“ neįgaliųjų orkestro „Spalvų muzikos“ praktikoje. Jis yra aprašytas Romualdo Brūzgos alternatyvaus adaptuoto muzikinio rašto pradžiamokslyje „Spalvų muzika“ (Brūzga 2005).

Respondentė, studijuojanti muzikos terapijos studijų programą, nurodė, kad taiko šiuolaikinės muzikos terapijos technikas bei šiuolaikinių terapijos koncepcijų elementus. Džiugu, kad Lietuvos mokyklas jau pasiekia muzikos terapijos metodai, o ateityje, tikimės, į ugdymo sistemą įsilies gausesnis muzikos terapeutų būrys.

Kitas anketos klausimas – kaip Lietuvos mokytojai bendradarbiauja su kitais specialistais. 37 respondentai bendradarbiauja su logopedu, 32 – su psichologu, 27 – su specialiuoju pedagogu, 17 – su mokytojo asistentu (padėjėju), 13 – su klasės auklėtoju ir /ar kitų dalykų mokytojais, po vieną – su surdopedagogu, elgesio terapeutu, 2 – su kineziterapeutu (12 pav.).

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12 pav. Mokytojų bendradarbiavimo su kitais specialistais mastai

Bendrauti su tėvais mokytojams sekasi kur kas sunkiau. 20 respondentų skundėsi, kad tėvai slepia savo vaikų diagnozes, nepripažįsta autizmo spektro sindromo ir neprisideda prie ugdymo proceso gerinimo. Tačiau didžioji dalis mokytojų (44 respondentai) randa bendrą kalbą su tėvais ir siekia kartu bendradarbiauti vaikų labui (13 pav.).

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13 pav. Mokytojų bendravimo su tėvais intensyvumas

Į klausimą,  ar būtų naudinga muzikos terapeuto pagalba, dauguma respondentų (53) atsakė, kad taip, būtų naudinga, 4 – kad labai naudinga, o 2 – kad nelabai naudinga (14 pav.). Vienas respondentas teigė, kad ir muzikos mokytojas gali būti muzikos terapeutas. Tai rodo, kad dar ne visi suvokia muzikos terapijos esmę ir tinkamai neįvertina savo galimybių. Tačiau yra ir kitokios patirties. Viena lopšelio-darželio mokytoja teigiamai įvertino muzikos terapeuto pasakytą padrąsinimą: „Jeigu vaikas išmoko kad ir nedidelio dalyko, visa tai jam – tik į naudą“. Mokytojai tikisi, kad jų pedagoginėje veikloje pagelbės muzikos terapijos ir kitų sričių specialistai: „padės geriau suprasti autistišką mokinį“. Kol muzikos terapijos specialistų Lietuvoje dar nėra pakankamai, mokytojai turi tenkintis kitų specialistų pagalba arba taikyti empatijos principą. Apklausoje dalyvavo beveik vien moterys, todėl jos nuolat akcentavo meilę ugdytiniams ir supratimą, kaip svarbiausius veiksnius, lemiančius darbo su autistiškais mokiniais sėkmę. Tenka apgailestauti, kad tokį sudėtingą darbą Lietuvoje atlieka kone vien mokytojos moterys.

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14 pav. Muzikos terapeuto pagalbos nauda (muzikos mokytojų požiūriu)

Apibendrinus apklausos rezultatus, galima būtų padaryti tokias tyrimo išvadas:

  • Dauguma Lietuvos mokytojų dirbdami su autistiškais mokiniais mažai naudojasi metodine ar moksline literatūra, jie vadovaujasi asmenine patirtimi, intuicija, taip pat bendradarbiauja su kolegomis ir kitais specialistais.
  • Lietuvos mokytojai dirba nepalankesnėmis sąlygomis (pernelyg didelės mokinių grupės) nei jų kolegos užsienyje, bet mūsų mokytojų ugdymo pasiekimai nėra ženkliai menkesni nei užsieniečių.
  • Dauguma mokytojų muzikinėje veikloje pirmenybę teikia instrumentiniam muzikavimui bei muzikos klausymui, dainavimą nepelnytai nuvertindami kaip nelabai tinkamą autistiškų mokinių ugdymui.
  • Dauguma Lietuvos mokytojų nėra pasirengę apibūdinti savo taikomus ugdymo metodus, jiems trūksta žinių ir metodinio darbo patirties.
  • Ateityje yra laukiama naujų specialistų – muzikos terapeutų, kurie muzikos mokytojams padės įveikti sunkumus, kylančius ugdant autistiškus mokinius.

Muzikos tyrimai jau kuris laikas siejami su psichologija, biomedicina ir tiksliaisiais mokslais. Svarbiausiu dalyku tampa tarpdalykiniai tyrimai bei tarpdalykinis požiūris į šių problemų sprendimą. Numatant mokinių, turinčių autizmo spektro sutrikimų, ugdymą, labai reikšmingi yra specialiosios pedagogikos, muzikos terapijos, muzikinio ugdymo, etninės kultūros, kognityvinės muzikologijos, psichologijos, filosofijos, neurologijos mokslų laimėjimai. Muzikos terapijos tyrimai, o ypač doc. dr. Vilmantės Aleksienės darbai yra svarbūs muzikos specialistams, dirbantiems su autistiškais vaikais.

Moksliniai tyrimai, muzikos pedagogų ir muzikos terapeutų patirtis rodo, kad muzika ugdymo procese yra tokia pat svarbi, kaip ir kalbos mokymas. Muzikos terapeutų patirtis, kuri vis labiau pripažįstama Lietuvoje, galės iš esmės padėti muzikinio ugdymo specialistams, kartu ir jų ugdytiniams – autistiškiems vaikams.

Literatūra

Aleksienė, V. (2005). Muzikinis neįgaliųjų ugdymas ir terapijos įžvalgos. Neįgaliųjų meninis ugdymas. Metodikos ir terapijos aspektai. Kaunas: Kronta, p. 78–115.

Aleksienė, V., Zvicevičienė S. (2009). Lietuvių etnochoreografija autistiškiems vaikams: ugdymo ir terapijos aspektai. Vilnius: Ciklonas.

Brūzga, A. (2005). Spalvų muzika. Alternatyvaus adaptuoto muzikinio rašto pradžiamokslis. Vilnius: Lietuvos sutrikusio intelekto žmonių globos bendrija „Viltis“.

Campbell, D. (2005). Mocarto muzikos poveikis. Kaunas: Vilties oazė.

Eren, B. (2015). The Use of Music Interventions to Improve Social Skills in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Integrated Group Music Therapy Sessions. Social and Behavioral Sciences 197. Athens.

Navickienė, L. (2005). Emocinio imitavimo metodas muzikos pamokoje. Vilnius: Kronta.

Tender, J. (2009). Jūsų vaikui diagnozuotas autizmas – ką daryti toliau? ISAAD. Kitoks vaikas.

Umbrasienė, V. (2015). Muzika ir muzikologijos virsmai kognityvinių mokslų kontekste. Ars et praxis. 3 tomas. Vilnius: Lietuvos muzikos ir teatro akademija, p. 11–24.

Vilkelienė, A. (2003). Ypatingųjų vaikų integruotas muzikinis ugdymas. Specialioji meno pedagogika. Vilnius: Kronta.

Vilkelienė, A. (2005). Ugdytinis – muzikos instrumentas (Dalcroze’o euritmijos erdvėje). Neįgaliųjų meninis ugdymas. Metodikos ir terapijos aspektai. Kaunas: Kronta, p. 160–175.

Никольский, Р. (2008). Психология реальности. Агентство Мультипресс.

Interneto nuorodos

(McFerrana ir kt. 2016). Katrina Skewes McFerran, G. Thompson and L. Bolgerb. The Impact of Fostering Relationships Through Music Within a Special School Classroom for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder: an action research study [interaktyvus]. Prieiga per internetą:

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09650792.2015.1058171#.V25sB-T1Lh4 [žiūrėta 2016- 06- 25]

Jakubovskaja, M. (2016). Autistiškų vaikų muzikinio ugdymo patirtis // Didaktika-mokykla-visuomenė [interaktyvus]. Prieiga per internetą:

http://www.didaktika.leu.lt/?page_id=858 [žiūrėta 2016-09-05]


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